A. What causes it?
Physical characteristics and genetic disorders are made most explicit in seniors. When seniors are endowed with a healthy genetic makeup, they also tend to be in better physical state, even after retirement.
2. Stem Cell
Today, the healing effects of stem cells in the cell repair process is widely recognized. Children who are endowed with a large and effective stem cell niche are favored in their physical and mental development. Blood filtration in the kidneys, heart pulse rate, skin repair and cognitive skills are especially affected by cell-stem niches After 25, stem cell niche effectiveness typically declines.
3. Mitochondria Blend
Aside of stem cells, “good” mitochondria play a critical role in ensuring optimal body functioning (notably in relation to energy preservation, antioxidant defense systems, calcium homeostasis level regulation). Commonly found in the cardiac muscle, these contain protein and fat and are instrumental in transforming cell nutrients into energy. After a person reaches 25, this optimization declines until a person’s death. In seniors, the stem cell niche is therefore significantly more deteriorated in comparison to, say, middle-aged adults. Those fortunate enough to have a sufficiently present and active stem cell niche -specially growth factors or fibroblast growth factors (FGF)- tend to recover faster from illnesses and injury. Wounds and scars also tend to heal faster. Most importantly, they benefit from a better physical and cognitive ability than seniors with a more vulnerable stem cell niche.
DNA molecules are what form chromosomes and determine the genetic makeup of a person. A balanced DNA telomere blend protects chromosomes, regulates enzyme and hormone production and vital proteins. Few people are endowed with an above-average telomere length, but those who do benefit from a longer cell life expectancy and a greater vitality in the general sense.
5. Cell Protection Blend
From the cells the chromosomes, protective cell blends act as a defense mechanism against hostile environments. A fully protected body system naturally prolongs the cell cycle, which results in a better physical and cognitive phenotype. This prevents high blood pressure, diabetes, cancerous cells, cerebral infarction, as well as coronary artery disease. Furthermore, seniors endowed with an efficient protective cell blend are typically able live longer than average.
6. Hormonal Blend
Hormones are essential to cell activity. A balanced blend of hormones enables children to grow strong and healthy, like their adult counterparts, while also supporting the cell revitalization process and the maintenance of their cognitive skills.
B. In the absence of the preventive
factors listed in A,
the following may occur :
1. Ill-ridden, slower recovery from illness
Seniors who were born with defective genes are likely to fall ill often. In worse cases, they may suffer from genetic disorders (e.g. thalassemia, hemophilia), disabilities as well as neurological illnesses. These may be present at birth or develop during the first years of their psycho-social development.
2. Inefficient cell regeneration
Adults with a destitute stem-cell niche typically develop a cell renewal disorder which impacts its effectiveness. In other words, the cell regeneration process takes a place at a slower pace than average and scars take longer to wane in comparison with healthier seniors.
3. Vulnerability to cell degeneration
An impoverished mitochondria blend disrupts cellular activity, which leads to symptoms of fatigue and exhaustion. Cellular energy depletes, resulting in excessively high calcium levels in the body and an acceleration of cellular degeneration. When this occurs, the body fails to discharge free radicals; this can lead to mitochondrial conditions such as epilepsy, macular degeneration, cardiomyopathy, and myasthenia gravis.
4. Premature aging
Shorter telomere length increases the chances of high blood pressure during youth. This also impacts chromosome protection and interrupts the production of enzymes, hormones, and proteins that are otherwise critical to good health.
5. Suffering from degenerative diseases
In the absence of a cell protection blend, free radicals typically harm cells and chromosomes. The effects of the cell degeneration or premature death tangibly affect physical appearance and cognitive functions. Furthermore, it may trigger a range of conditions, such as high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer.
6. Hormonal system
The absence of an average hormonal blend can significantly lead to cell damage inside the body. As a result, elders may suffer from development disorders, tantrums and impaired cognitive faculties.
C. Developing effective solutions
1. Genetic engineering
Constant innovation in the area of health technologies has enabled experts to uncover the Cas9 nuclease enzyme, which genetically modifies bacteria to prevent viral infections. The discovery and treatment that ensued greatly benefited not only seniors born with genetic defects, but also, those who developed a genetically related condition during their early stages of childhood.
Treatments involving genetic modifications are today provided to seniors suffering from thalassemia. These enable a reduction of blood transfusion therapy, prevent the development of abnormal craniofacial manifestations and cut down iron surplus in the blood. This treatment still today however remains exclusive and expensive.
2. Stem Cell Therapy
Stem cell therapy offers an innovative medical treatment for patients suffering from blood and brain disorders, although treatment the latter is still in development. In Thailand, for instance, the treatment is only available for blood disorders, while its potential range of broader applications is still undergoing research. Stem cell therapy enables the healing process with more precision, by means of injecting stem cells in the blood to arouse the targeted cells.
3. Mitochondria blend restoration
Research restoration has revealed that mitochondria restoration requires: (1)Homeostasis regulation of the mitochondrial membrane. (2)A regulation of the electron transport chain. (3)Metabolite control in the mitochondria.
4. Telomere extension
Extending telomeres with the help of genetic engineering is another effective way of delaying the aging process. Indeed, a study showed that the simulation of an enzyme called “human telomerase reverse transcriptase” (hTERT) extends telomere length. This capacity however is reserved to stem cells. Once the hTERT enzyme is stimulated, youth can be prolonged.
5. Providing active substances that prevent free radicals
Increasing antioxidant intake in one’s diet can effectively protect cells and chromosomes from degenerating and cellular death.
Antioxidants can be categorized into two different types :
1. Enzymatic antioxidants,
on the one hand, transform themselves into enzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase, and others that form the glutathione system.
2. Non Enzymatic antioxidants
consist of the following: ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C), glutathione, melatonin, tocopherols and tocotrienols (i.e., Vitamin E), as well as carotenoids, flavonoids and uric acid.
6. Having healthy diet and regular exercise
Maintaining a balanced diet and exercising regularly is a good way to monitor hormonal levels and cellular activity. Low amounts of the klotho hormone have been correlated with premature ageing.
There are also natural ways of increasing klotho levels by exercising, consuming foods rich in probiotics, adopting a Mediterranean diet, ACE inhibitors, a pharmaceutical drug, can also be used.