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  • A.

  • What are the skin’s vital constituents?

(Why What)


1. Melanin: a pigment that defines the tone and color of complexion

Skin tone nuances and variations among humans is determined by melanin, a natural pigment which colors the eyes, the skin and the hair. Melanin is produced by melanocyte, a cell that is located in the deepest part of the epidermis, the basal cell layer. The production of melanin pigmentation -a process known as melanogenesis- takes place as melanocytes transform melanin pigments into a melanosome, an organelle that serves to store and transport the melanin to the outermost layer of the skin, the keratinocyte, which is regimented by the tyrosinase enzyme.

2. Bacteria that affect the skin health

Medical studies have revealed that the human digestive system is home to a thousand different types of bacteria, composed in majority of firmicutes and bacteroidetes. A plurality of factors come into play in determining the gut’s bacterial equilibrium, such as a person’s age, diet, antibiotic intake and illness. Available research, for instance, points out the relationship between breakouts and gut dysbiosis.

3. Hyaluronic acid and collagen helps strengthen ECM for beautiful skin

The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) can be thought of as a “fence” that prevents harmful chemicals and bacteria from entering the body. A balanced diet is critical for this fence to stay strong. When the fence is weakened, hyaluronic acid “mends” the damaged caused by enabling skin cells to recover their strength; this minimizes the visible effects of ageing.

4. Antioxidants that enhance the skin health

The benefits of antioxidants are widely documented in medical literature. They safeguard the body by eliminating free radicals which can cause unhealthy skin and accelerated ageing. Antioxidants are therefore indispensable to health, and act as an effective “bodyguard” against potential infections.

The central role for vitamin C and other antioxidants pertinent to the skin. The interdependence of Vitamins E and C, and glutathione, in the scavenging of free radicals and regeneration of the reduced antioxidants, is shown. Vitamin E is in the lipid fraction of the cell, whereas vitamin C and glutathione are water-soluble and present in the cytosol.

B. In the absence of the

elements listed in A,

the following may occur :

1. Children inherit bad genes from ancestors

The genetic makeup of a newborn makes itself most apparent externally, for instance in his facial characteristics, the physique, skin tone, which may resemble that of his parents. Defective genes are also passed on, and can negatively impact skin health (tone, firmness) and its deterioration.

2. Gut microbiota dysbiosis

In a healthy body, the gut microbiome is located in the intestinal colony and occasionally serves to regulate the organism. When a gut dysbiosis occurs, it typically leads to an imbalance scientifically referred to as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

This disrupts the gastrointestinal immune system and triggers an intestinal inflammation caused by noxious chemicals. When these get through to the blood stream and reach the skin cells, this can trigger a range of skin conditions, such as eczema, atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris.

3. Weak ECM (Extracellular Matrix)

The extracellular matrix (ECM) sources its strength from hyaluronic acid and collagen and is essential to healthy skin. A range of deficiencies, notably in magnesium and protein coupled with smoking typically negatively affect hyaluronic acid production, which weakens the effectiveness of the ECM.

4. Premature skin cell degeneration

When the antioxidant defense system is weakened, free radicals typically “attack” skin cells, which harms their efficiency as well as that of the extracellular matrix. Premature ageing, dryness, a rough skin texture, dark spots and early wrinkles may all be symptomatic of the damage caused by free radicals.

C. Developing effective solutions

1. Further research

To this date, there is no comprehensive scientific formula that addresses genetic skin conditions and disorders. Research, however, is actively investigating and developing potential solutions towards that goal.

2. Providing probiotics

Prebiotics and non-digestible polysaccharides can harmonize and even out gut bacteria to optimize and prevent imbalances in the gut microbiota. Prebiotics should not be confused with probiotics, live bacteria of which the properties are beneficial to both the digestive system and gut flora.

3. Receiving sufficient amount of nutritions

A safe and lasting house can only be made from high-quality materials; the same applies to the human body. Indeed, a varied and balanced nutrition is the foundation for good health. The soy protein is a powerful nutrient given its multiple benefits, from vitamins essential (for skin collagen), hyaluronic acid (for skin reparation), to zinc and magnesium.

4. Providing active substances that prevent free radicals

Aside of nourishing the body with minerals and vitamins, taking adequate measures to avert endogenous and exogeneous free radicals is a necessary preventive step to ensure good health. Anti-free radical agents can be incorporated as part of a balanced diet to prevent chronic inflammation as well as cell and chromosome damage.


There are in total two different types of antioxidants :

1. Enzymatic antioxidants

Enzymatic antioxidants, on the one hand, transform themselves into enzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase, and others that form the glutathione system.

2. Non Enzymatic antioxidants

Non-enzymatic antioxidants consist of the following: ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C), glutathione, melatonin, tocopherols and tocotrienols (i.e., Vitamin E), as well as carotenoids, flavonoids and uric acid.

Consuming foods on a regular basis that are rich in antioxidants will facilitate the elimination of excessive of free radicals that typically harm the DNA and cell structures.

A few antioxidant-rich substances include green tea, resveratrol, grape seed, niacinamide (vitamin B3).

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